Đề thi IELTS Writing task 2 – 16/06/2016
Most large companies nowadays operate multi-nationally. To what extent multinational companies have responsibility toward local communities in which they operate?
Introduction: introduce topic, agree => multinational companies have a responsibility.
Paragraph 2: social perspective: a healthy and educated workforce will benefit the operations of the company – employees will be healthier and well-trained. Example: car assembly factories: Ford/Nissan.
Paragraph 3: environmental perspective: companies which exploit the natural resources of a local area must do this
(1) without polluting the local area as the economy of people in local communities will suffer – example, the oil industry and marine pollution which affects a local fishing industry – Alaska;
(2) in a sustainable way – example: logging companies. .
Conclusion: multinational companies have a moral responsibility and a practical interest in improving the quality of life of people in the local communities where the companies are based.
It is true that, in this era of globalisation, most large companies operate outside the confines of national borders. While it is necessary that companies maximise their profits, this must not be at the expense of the welfare of the people in areas where these companies are based.
From a social perspective, multinational enterprises should provide jobs for local people and ensure that workers and their families have adequate salaries and access to health and education services. The horrors of the industrial revolution in Europe and America must be avoided – child labour, starvation wages and unhealthy working conditions. It is also in the self-interest of multinational firms to employ a healthy and educated workforce. Physically fit workers are more productive and mentally alert to the importance of health and safety at work. Finally, an educated workforce gives the company more flexibility, as skilled employees can be switched from one task to another to meet production requirements, as in the case of car assembly plants like Ford or Nissan.
From an environmental perspective, multinational firms must safeguard the natural resources of the area in which they operate. Local communities may traditionally depend on such resources for their survival. Irresponsible oil extraction by firms such as Shell or Texaco, for example, may result in oil spills which devastate the local fishing industry,as incidents in Alaska have shown. Similarly, unsustainable logging of timber for construction or paper manufacture may have serious effects on local farmers due to resultant soil erosion. Thus, it is essential to re-invest corporate profits into schemes to prevent pollution and to guarantee the long-term prosperity of local communities.
In conclusion, multinational companies have a moral duty and a practical interest in improving the quality of life of the local communities in which they conduct their operations.
-confines: (noun) (ranh giới) limits or borders.
Example: Animals in zoos cannot go beyond the confines of their enclosures.
-maximise: (verb) (tối đa hóa) increase something as much as possible.
Example: The company reduced the wages of its workers in order to maximise its profits.
-horrors: (noun) (sự kinh khủng) the very unpleasant nature of something.
Example: The older generation still remember the horrors of the war of liberation.
-starvation wages: (noun) (đồng lương chết đói) the state of suffering and death, as a result of having no food.
Example: As a result of the starvation wages paid by employers, many factory workers died at an early age.
-self-interest: (noun) (tư lợi) considering only the advantage to yourself, without caring about others.
Example: Corrupt politicians act only out of self-interest.
-alert: (adjective) (cảnh giác) aware of something, especially a danger or a problem.
Example: Firefighters must always be alert to the dangers when they go to fight a fire.
-switched: (verb) (thay đổi) changed, moved.
Example: I see that you are working in a new school – when did you switch jobs?
-safeguard: (verb) (bảo vệ) protect somebody/something from danger or harm.
Example: The boss explained how the employees should safeguard themselves while at work.
-irresponsible: (adjective) (vô trách nhiệm) not thinking about the effects of what you do.
Example: He has an irresponsible attitude to work, often arriving late and leaving early.
-oil spills: (noun) (tràn dầu) accidents which allow oil to escape into the sea.
Example: Many birds died as a result of the recent oil spills.
-devastate: (verb) (phá hủy) completely destroy something, such as an area of land.
Example: The bombs devastated part of the old city during the war.
-unsustainable logging: (adjective+noun) (khai thác gỗ không bền vững) cutting of trees that cannot be continued at the same rate indefinitely.
Example: In Thailand and Malaysia, large areas of rainforest have been devastated as a result of unsustainable logging.
-resultant: (adjective) (hậu quả kéo theo) caused by the thing which has just been mentioned.
Example: The country is in crisis and the government is concerned about the resultant unemployment.
-soil erosion: (noun) (xói mòn đất) the process by which the soil/the land is gradually destroyed by the action of wind and rain.
Example: When there are no trees to protect the land, soil erosion commonly results.